|作者：管理员 时间：2005-8-27 点击：300
比昂（W. R. Bion） 等 著
梅兰妮·克莱茵的去世是一种更大程度上的损失，尽管她已经过了78岁，但还是全身心地投入到创造性的工作当中。《羡慕与感激》（《Envy and Gratitude》）写于四年前，在随后的两年间，她完成了作为她的主要著作之一的《一个儿童的分析过程》（《Narrative of a Child Analysis》）。在她生命的最后一年，当健康状况趋于恶化时，她还专注于对埃斯库勒斯的作品《奥瑞斯忒亚》的精神分析研究和写作。这篇文章刚刚完成，她就着手准备参加爱丁堡大会的论文，也就在这个时候，她去世了。
梅兰妮是家里最小的孩子，她有两个姐姐和一个哥哥。她深爱着二姐西多涅，西多涅9岁去世，当时梅兰妮5岁。西多涅去世前有一年的时间卧病在床，这期间，她花了大量的时间努力把自己的知识教给梅兰妮。梅兰妮觉得这是对她的信任，为了让姐姐高兴，她在5岁前就学习读书、写字、做算术。长大以后，梅兰妮与一个叫伊曼纽尔的男孩建立了类似的令她感到鼓舞的关系。伊曼纽尔比她大5岁，很有天赋，对文学、艺术、音乐有浓厚的兴趣，弹得一手熟练的钢琴，文章也写得小有名气，他鼓励梅兰妮和他一起分享这些乐趣并加入他的朋友圈子，他对她的才华充满信心。在伊曼纽尔的影响下，梅兰妮对文学和音乐倾注了自己的热情。但就象与西多涅的关系一样，梅兰妮与伊曼纽尔的关系同样也由于死亡的迫近而充满了阴影。她的哥哥患了心脏病，一般人都认为他会在年纪很小的时候就死去，他死的时候是25岁。当梅兰妮14岁时，她决定学医，在她哥哥的辅导下，她通过了入学考试，进了维也纳预备高中，这是当时仅有的一所为女孩子进大学提供预备课程的中学。17岁那年，梅兰妮考上了大学，几乎与此同时，她订婚了，她早期的婚约和21岁上的结婚改变了她的计划。她放弃了从医的打算，在维也纳大学改修艺术和历史。梅兰妮·克莱茵始终保持着对医学的兴趣，她一直对自己没有学医感到遗憾。她在治疗方面的极大兴趣和天赋在她的精神分析工作中得到了展示，对她来讲，治疗永远是最重要的。梅兰妮·克莱茵的丈夫叫亚瑟·克莱茵，是一个工业化学家，由于丈夫职业的关系，一家人总是频繁地旅行。他们有三个孩子，梅利塔、汉斯和埃里克。1914年至1918年的战争前几年，他们一家住在布达佩斯，在这里，梅兰妮·克莱茵第一次偶然读到了弗洛伊德的一本书。她立刻对这个新学科产生了兴趣。桑多尔·费伦齐（Sandor Ferenczi）给她做了个人分析，在费伦齐的鼓励下，她开始考虑把精神分析用于年纪较小的儿童。1919年7月，梅兰妮在匈牙利精神分析协会上宣读了她的第一篇论文，题为《一个儿童的发展》，并于同年加入该协会。在1920年的精神分析大会上，她遇到了卡尔·亚伯拉罕（Karl Abraham），亚伯拉罕邀请她到柏林工作。1921年，梅兰妮和孩子一起到了柏林，而她的丈夫去了瑞典。这次分离是导致她和丈夫情感破裂的前奏，不久后他们就离婚了。
从那以后，梅兰妮·克莱茵全身心投入到了精神分析的实践和研究当中。在柏林，她逐步发展了她的儿童分析技术。在《精神分析新趋势》（《New Directions in Psycho-Analysis》）这本书的第一章里，她生动地描绘了她自己的早期体验。1924年初，她开始接受卡尔·亚伯拉罕的分析，但不幸的是，亚伯近罕在1925年患了重病，分析被迫终止。这次分析给梅兰妮留下了深刻的印象，她反复谈到，对亚伯拉罕这样一位精神分析家和老师，她怀着最深的敬佩、欣赏和感激。亚伯拉罕去世后，她继续坚持每天进行有规律的自我分析（self-experience）。
梅兰妮·克莱茵对儿童的工作和她的发现在很大程度上影响了她对成年人的治疗技术。通过对儿童的分析，她看到了分裂机制（splitting mechanisms）、投射性认同和内投射性认同（introjective identifications）的力量、重要性和活跃程度，看到了小病人内心状态持续波动的重要意义。例如，她观察到一个内在客体如何被分裂，其中一部分如何投射到分析师身上，如何被分析师的某些干预或者甚至是无为（inaction）的状态所改变，然后这个被改变的形式又如何重新被内射。由于这种情形，与经典的精神分析比起来，她更为频繁地动用解释的方法。她一步一步地追随着分裂、投射、内投射，并向病人解释这些情形。在移情当中，这种对焦虑的波动和防御焦虑的细致的追随，使得她能够达到内心的一些最深的层面。
概述梅兰妮·克莱茵的贡献，或者从历史的角度说明她的观点如何从早期的萌芽状态发展到后来的《儿童精神分析》（《The Psycho-Analysis of Children》），这已经超出了本文的范围。但我们还是可以勾勒出这个发展过程中的一系列主要步骤：发现俄狄浦斯情结的早期形式以及这一阶段的自我和超我；发现分裂、投射和内投射机制对建立儿童内部世界的重要性；发现抑郁状态（depressive position）发展的至关重要的地位，将其与婴儿对母亲作为一个整体的人和作为一个分裂（separate）的人的觉察（awareness）联系起来；发现焦虑和抑郁状态之前在偏执——分裂样状态（paranoid-schizoid position）中的运作机制，发现精神分裂症这一组疾病的固着点；最后发现早期口腔嫉妒（oral envy）及其对早期心理发育过程的影响。在理解梅兰妮·克莱茵的贡献方面，重要之处在于她对自我结构变化、焦虑类型和客体关系的研究，这些情形出现在偏执——分裂状态和抑郁状态之间。
W. R. Bion, H. Rosenfeld and H. Segal
With the death of Melanie Klein in London on 22 September, 1960, psycho-analysis loses a great and controversial figure. She was the pioneer of child analysis and in the course of her profound and original work she opened the way to the understanding of the primitive mental processes which dominate the infant mind. She thereby made fundamental contributions to the clarification of early ego and superego functioning and the primitive foundations of character and personality development and to the psycho-analysis of schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis. Her genius was expressed in her untiring exploration of the unconscious, reaching ever deeper layers of the mind.
Her death is all the more a loss because, although over 78 years of age, she was still fully engaged in creative work. Envy and Gratitude was written only four years ago, and during the succeeding two years she completed what will certainly rank as one of her major works, Narrative of a Child Analysis. In her last year, and right up to her final illness, she was deeply engrossed in the writing of a psycho-analytical study of the Oresteia of Aeschylus. This paper she had just completed, and she had begun to prepare her paper for the Edinburgh Congress when she died.
Psycho-analysis has thus lost in Melanie Klein one of its pioneering and original minds, still at the height of creative power. The future will show how profoundly she has influenced the direction and rate of growth of psycho-analytic theory and extended the boundaries of its practice.
Melanie Klein was born on 30 March, 1882, in Vienna. Her father was himself a remarkable man, coming from an orthodox Jewish milieu and trained to be a student of Talmud. At the age of 37 he broke away from his orthodox background, managed to acquire education, and eventually qualified as a doctor of medicine. Her mother was a person of great strength and resourcefulness. As there was very little money in the household she not only carried the responsibility for the home and family, but also opened a shop in order to give support to her husband and ensure a good education for her children. Melanie Klein had a great admiration for her father's independent spirit and his scientific attitude, but their relationship was never very close, partly, maybe, because he was well over 50 when Melanie was born. She felt closer to her mother, of whom she was deeply fond and whom she admired for her beauty, intellect, and great desire for knowledge.
Melanie, the youngest of her family, had two sisters and one brother. She was devoted to the younger of the two sisters, Sidonie, who died at the age of 9, when Melanie was about 5. Sidonie was bedridden for about a year before her death and spent a great deal of her time teaching Melanie and trying to pass on her own knowledge. Melanie felt that this was given to her in trust, and to please her sister she learnt to read, write, and do some arithmetic before she was 5. When she was older she had a similarly inspiring relationship with Emmanuel, five years her senior. He was a gifted boy, interested in literature, art, and music, an accomplished pianist and a budding writer, who encouraged Melanie to share his interests and to join in with his friends, and he had a great belief in her gifts. Under his influence she developed a passion for literature and music. But as with her relationship with Sidonie, this relationship too was clouded by impending death. Her brother suffered from a heart disease and was expected to die very young; he died at the age of 25. When Melanie was 14 she decided to study medicine and, coached by her brother, she passed the entrance examination to the Vienna Gymnasium, then the only school preparing girls for the University. Almost immediately after her matriculation at the age of 17, however, she became engaged, and her early engagement and marriage at the age of 21 made her change her plans. Instead of following a medical career she attended courses in art and history at the University of Vienna. Melanie Klein always retained her interest in medicine and always regretted that she had not studied it. Her pronounced therapeutic interests and gifts found expression in her psycho-analytical work, and therapy was always of the utmost importance to her.
Melanie Klein's husband, Arthur Klein, was an industrial chemist, and the family travelled a great deal in connexion with his professional activities. They had three children, Melitta, Hans, and Eric. A few years before the 1914?8 war they settled in Budapest, and it was here that Melanie Klein for the first time came across a book of Freud's. Her interest in the new science was immediate. She had a personal analysis with Sandor Ferenczi, and encouraged by him she began to think about the application of psycho-analysis to small children. In July 1919 she read her first paper in the Hungarian Psycho-Analytical Society on 'The Development of a Child', and was made a member of that Society in the same year. At the Congress of 1920 she met Karl Abraham, who invited her to go to Berlin and practise there. She went to Berlin with the children in 1921, while her husband went to Sweden. This separation was the first step towards a divorce, which took place soon after.
From that time onwards Melanie Klein devoted herself fully to psycho-analytical practice and research. It was in Berlin that she gradually developed her technique of analysing children. She has described her early experiences vividly in the first chapter of New Directions in Psycho-Analysis. At the beginning of 1924 she started an analysis with Karl Abraham, but this was unfortunately terminated by his fatal illness in the summer of 1925. This analysis left a strong impression on her, and she always spoke with the deepest admiration, appreciation, and gratitude of Abraham as an analyst and teacher. After his death she carried on regular and daily self-analysis.
During the summer of 1925 she was invited by Ernest Jones to give a course of lectures in London, and soon after to come and settle in England. As after Abraham's death she found the Berlin Psycho-Analytical Society uncongenial to her, she accepted this invitation, and from 1926 until her death she remained in Britain and worked in the British Psycho-Analytical Society. This was a decision that she never regretted. She was welcomed and given opportunity to work, and received wide support. Though later her work produced controversy and at one time a great deal of opposition in the Society, she never forgot that the British Psycho-Analytical Society was more receptive to her ideas than any other, and that it was in this Society that she was able to pursue her work, develop it further, and teach it. She always remained grateful to Ernest Jones for having urged her to come.
While her analytical work flourished and progressed her private life was marked by personal tragedies. First, her elder son died suddenly in the spring of 1934 in a mountaineering accident, at the age of 27. Soon after, she lost in a different way her daughter Melitta. Melitta Schmideberg, who studied medicine and trained as a psycho-analyst, at first worked in harmony with her mother. In the late 1930s, however, she became opposed to her work and personally estranged from her. There was, however, a great deal of compensation for Melanie Klein in her relationship to her younger son, Eric, who married in London and had three children. She was devoted to her grandchildren and found much family happiness through them; and she also found a lasting pleasure in the company of her friends and pupils. She derived a deep enjoyment from art, particularly in her last years.
But the major part of Melanie Klein's life was devoted to her work. Her contribution to psycho-analysis, as we look back on it, stands out as a monumental achievement. Freud, through the analysis of adults, discovered the world of childhood. Melanie Klein, through the analysis of children, particularly small ones, could confirm his theories by direct evidence, extend knowledge about childhood, and delve deep into infancy. Her play technique has become a new tool with which new discoveries can be made.
Melanie Klein was, and considered herself first and foremost, a strict follower of Freud. She believed deeply that psycho-analytic therapy is based on insight and that the only setting in which analytic investigation can be carried out is the analytical setting described by Freud. She therefore aimed, from the start, at creating a setting for the child which in essence would be the same as the setting for the analysis of adults. She provided the child with a suitable room and put a drawer of small toys and play material at his disposal. Since a child expresses himself in play more than in words she proceeded to analyse his free play, treating it as free associations. She was convinced from the beginning that one could achieve with the child an analytical relationship, free from educational, or reassuring interferences, in which a proper analysis could be carried out, and her conviction proved fully justified. She was also concerned from the beginning with the necessity of reaching the level at which unconscious anxiety was active, and it is significant that her first analytical paper read in the Berlin Society had the title 'Anxiety'.
Her work with children and the findings that she made had considerable influence on her technique with adults. Child analysis demonstrated to her the power, importance, and speed of splitting mechanisms and of projective and introjective identifications, and the importance of the constant fluctuations in the state of mind of the little patient. For instance, she could observe how an internal object could be split, one part projected on to the analyst, altered by some interventions, or even by the inaction, of the analyst, and reintrojected in this altered form. This led her to interpret more frequently than is usual in a classical Freudian analysis. She followed step by step the splitting, projections, and introjections, and interpreted them to the patient. This detailed following of the fluctuations of anxiety and of the defences against it, in the transference, enabled her to reach the deepest layers of the mind.
Very early on in her work she became aware of the importance and variety of the child's early object relationships in phantasy and in reality and of the richness of his unconscious phantasy. With her technique she got access to the patient's internal world and became aware of the complex and detailed way in which the child's external and internal world overlap and influence one another.
It is beyond the scope of this obituary either to give an outline of Melanie Klein's contribution or to indicate historically how her ideas developed from those which were already there in embryo by the early thirties, foreshadowed in The Psycho-Analysis of Children. Nevertheless, one might indicate a series of major steps as follows: the discovery of the early forms of the Oedipus complex and those of the ego and the superego, and the importance of the splitting, projective, and introjective mechanisms for building up the child's internal world; the discovery of the crucial place in development of the depressive position, linked with the infant's awareness of his mother as a whole and separate person; the discovery of the anxieties and mechanisms operating before the depressive position in the paranoid-schizoid position, the point of fixation of the schizophrenic group of illnesses; and finally the discovery of early oral envy and its influence on the early stages of development. Of particular importance to the understanding of her contribution is her study of the change in ego structure and the type of anxiety and object relationships which occur between the paranoid-schizoid and the depressive positions.
These discoveries of hers are, to those who follow her teaching, fundamental milestones in the understanding of human development. They are not universally accepted, but they have influenced deeply the course of psycho-analytical thought and leave their mark even on those who disagree with her.
To carry out this kind of research and to stand by her findings in the face of opposition that often became harsh and bitter required the presence of unusual qualities. Melanie Klein remarked once that she had devoted her life to psycho-analysis, and then, to her interlocutor's surprise, added rather sadly that she sometimes felt regret that she had done so. It would not have been appropriate to answer by anything comforting, because only she knew what had been the price of her devotion, and no one knew better than she what her work was worth. For she had a deep conviction of its value and importance. Her sacrifices must have been great indeed. Those who knew her and enjoyed her gaiety and enthusiasm could easily forget how much her work had cost her. People exist who are richly endowed but whose personality has not the strength to sustain the endowment. Melanie Klein had the character and courage, fortitude and pugnacity to match her gifts. Her compassion and understanding of human nature were combined with ruthlessness when she felt that scientific integrity was tampered with. This single-mindedness in the pursuit of truth and the courage that is needed for it were, perhaps, her most outstanding characteristics. In her technique she pursued the task of finding out the truth without any concessions. It is this that horrified her colleagues in her technique of child analysis. She was equally uncompromising when it came to presenting her findings and facing criticism or disapproval. But such devotion to scientific integrity does not make life easy. We have reason to congratulate ourselves that Melanie Klein had the equipment of heart and mind to enable her to enlarge the scope of our science and that she was able to find in our Society the conditions in which she could do so. Samuel Johnson's letter to Benet on the death of General Drury contains a passage which might epitomize Melanie Klein's attitude to her work: 'Whether to see life as it is will give us much consolation, I know not; but the consolation which is drawn from truth, if any there be, is solid and durable; that which may be derived from error must be, like its original, fallacious and fugitive.' All scientific work has as its aim to see life 'as it is'. The peculiarity of psycho-analysis lies in our belief that such an aim and its steady pursuit is restorative. Melanie Klein, by her discoveries and her personality, has produced turmoil and controversy in the psycho-analytical movement. But disturbance